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Questions 91-100

91. Ectopic pregnancy

a. Occurs in about 10% of pregnancies

b. The risk is increased in those with a history or pelvic inflammatory disease

c. Usually presents between 2 and 4 months of gestation

d. Patients usually have a negative pregnancy test

e. if shocked early laparotomy is essential

92.  Pelvic inflammatory disease 

a. Usually arises from haematogenous spread from another site

b. Is most commonly a chlamydial infection

c. Untreated can progress to a pyosalpinx

d. Reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy 

e. 20% of patients develop chronic pain

93. The following colonic polyps are pre-malignant

a. Juvenile polyps

b. Hamartomatous polyps associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

c. Villous adenomas

d. Tubular adenomas

e. Metaplastic polyps

94. Tetanus

a. Is due to an infection with a gram-negative spore forming rod

b. The organism produces a powerful endotoxin

c. The toxin prevents the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter

d. Clostridium tetani is sensitive to penicillin

e. Risus sardonicus is the typical facial spasm

95. Multiple myeloma

a. Results from a polyclonal proliferation of lymph node plasma cells

b. Often presents with back pain or pathological fractures

c. Hypercalcaemia develops in 50% of patients

d. X-rays are normal in most patients

e. Most patients have a serum paraproteinaemia

96. Regarding pathological terms

a. Hypertrophy is an increase in tissue size due to increased cell number

b. Hyperplasia is an increase in tissue size due to an increase in cell size

c. Atrophy is an increase in tissue size to disuse

d. Metaplasia is a change form one abnormal tissue type to another

e. A hamartoma is a developmental abnormality 

97. Osteoporosis is associated with

a. Vitamin D deficiency

b. Vitamin A deficiency

c. Chronic renal failure

d. Prolonged bed rest

e. Hyperparathyroidism

98. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the left by

a. Increased body temperature

b. Metabolic acidosis

c. Chronic hypoxia

d. Anaemia

e. Erythropoietin

99.  Metastatic calcification is seen in

a. Hyperparathyroidism

b. Sarcoidosis

c. Fat necrosis

d. Atheroma

e. Tuberculosis

100. Intrinsic factor

a. Is a polysaccharide

b. Is produced by the parietal cells in the stomach

c. Acts in the terminal ileum

d. Is important in the absorption of folic acid

e. Deficiency can be treated with oral B12


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