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Core 'mini' examination

Attempt all questions.  Check the box next to the answers that you believe to be true.  Leave unchecked all answers that you believe to be false.  Once you have completed each question it can be marked.  One point is scored for a correct answer.  Incorrect answers score zero.  There is no negative marking.  The answers to each question can then be explained.  You can not change the answers after they have been marked!

1. Clostridium tetani
(a) Is a gram-negative rod
(b) Is sensitive to penicillin
(c) Is widely prevalent in both soil and the environment
(d) Releases a heat-resistant endotoxin
(e) The toxin acts on the post-synaptic membrane of inhibitory nerve fibres

        

2. Diathermy
(a) Works by using a direct current
(b) The frequencies used range from 400kHz to 10MHz
(c) A cutting effect is produced by using a continuous output
(d) A coagulation effect is produced by using a pulsed output
(e) Maximal current density and heating effect is seen at the point of greatest cross-sectional area

        

3. The following predispose to wound infection
(a) Malnutrition
(b) Hypovolaemia
(c) Malignancy
(d) A good wound blood supply
(e) Steroid therapy

        

4. Lignocaine
(a) Reduce cell membrane permeability to sodium ions
(b) Acts on large myelinated A fibres before unmyelinated C fibres
(c) Has a duration of action of greater than 12 hours
(d) 20 ml of 1% lignocaine is a safe dose in a 70 kg man
(e) Addition of adrenaline allows the dose used to be safely doubled

        

5. Hepatitis B
(a) Is a single stranded DNA virus
(b) Has an incubation period of between of between 6 weeks and 6 months
(c) More than 90% of infected patients become chronic carriers
(d) Hbe antigen positivity is associated with a high risk of the patient being an infective risk
(e) In the United Kingdom the population prevalence of the disease is about 2%

        

6. Human immunodeficiency virus
(a) Is a single stranded DNA retrovirus
(b) Induces a fall in CD4 lymphocytes, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells
(c) Increases the risk of opportunistic infection
(d) Patients can be infective prior to seroconversion illness at about three months
(e) The median survival with AIDS is greater than 10 years

        

7. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is increased in
(a) Acute hepatitis
(b) Hepatocellular carcinoma
(c) Neuroblastoma
(d) Teratomas
(e) Bladder carcinoma

        

8. Osmotic diuretics
(a) Reduce sodium and water reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule
(b) Produce a diuresis limited by the glomerular filtration rate
(c) Frusemide is an osmotic diuretic
(d) Glucose can act as an osmotic diuretic
(e) Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic

        

9. Grade I hypovolaemic shock
(a) Occurs when more than 40% of the circulating blood volume has been lost
(b) Tachycardia is a reliable clinical sign
(c) A fall in pulse pressure is observed
(d) Urine output is markedly reduced
(e) Capillary return is delayed

        

10. During a trauma primary survey the following chest injuries should be identified
(a) Airway obstruction
(b) Tension pneumothorax
(c) Aortic disruption
(d) Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia
(e) Myocardial contusion

        

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Authored in CALnet

 
 

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