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Journal Club

This section contains summaries of original articles from the recent surgical literature. Précises of papers can be accessed by following the links below or using the search engine at the bottom of this page.

Breast papers Colorectal papers Critical care papers Endocrine papers

General papers Hernia papers Hepatobiliary papers Laparoscopy papers

Orthopaedic papers Paediatric papers Trauma papers Upper GI papers

Urology papers Cardiothoracic papers Vascular papers Neurosurgery papers

Levels of Evidence
Papers have been assessed as to the levels of evidence that they support as follows:
Level 1 Based on randomised, controlled trials (or meta-analysis of such trials) of adequate size to ensure a low risk of incorporating false-positive or false-negative results
Level 2 Based on randomised, controlled trials that are too small to provide level 1 evidence.  These may show either positive trends that are not statistically significant or no trends which are associated with a high risk of false-negative results
Level 3 Based on non-randomised, controlled or cohort studies, case series, case-controlled studies or cross-sectional surveys
Level 4 Based on the opinion of respected authorities or that of expert committees as indicated in published consensus conferences or guidelines
Level 5 Based on the opinion of those individuals who have written and reviewed these guidelines, based on their experience, knowledge of the relevant literature and discussion with their peers

Journal search

To identify a particular paper summarised on this site use the following search facility.  To limit the number of papers returned please complete only one or two boxes.

Sub-speciality listed above
Keywords from title of paper
Surname of authors
Index Medicus abbreviation of journal
Keyword form summary of text
Year of publication


Unable to identify any records matching your search criteria
Critical appraisal Guidelines for the critical appraisal of published papers
Intercollegiate examination Guidance for the Academic viva of the Intercollegiate Examination in General Surgery
Historical papers Important papers from the history of surgery
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